erp.oceanbaycommunity.com/the-biker-next-door.php Soort soek soort : 'n versameling alternatiewe ervarings 1. Tweede natuur 1ste uitg. Frost, E. Heyns, M. Die rol van die superego in egosintoniese en egodistoniese homoseksualiteit. Joubert, D. Perspektiewe op Homoseksualiteit. Kaap: Uitgewery Boschendal. Tot dieselfde geslag : debat oor homoseksualiteit in Kaapstad: Tafelberg.
Psigoterapeutiese beskouings met betrekking tot homoseksualiteit. Liebenberg, P. Daar's 'n gay pastoor in my kop 1ste uitgawe. Johannesburg: Penguin. Loots, F. Louw, A. Dissertation: Thesis D. Praktiese Teologie --Universiteit van Suid-Afrika, Meyer, A. Dissertation: Thesis M. Potgieter, J. Dissertation: Thesis Ph. Homoseksualiteit in perspektief : hoop en heling uit die Bybel 1ste uitg.
Pretorius, H. Seksuele diskriminasie : die gay hangkas kleurlose apartheid 1. Pretoria: Homofilos. Reynhardt, J. Schulze, S. Homoseksuele identiteitsvorming in empiries-pedagogiese perspektief. Geslagsopvoeding vir seuns : riglyne ter voorkoming van homoseksualiteit en kindermolestering 1ste uitg. Swart, J. Levitikus 18 en 20 in die homoseksualiteitsdebat : 'n hermeneutiese perspektief pp. Van den Berg, J. Homoseksualiteit : siekte of sonde? Van Der Merwe, H. Antropologiese modelle in die psigoterapeutiese hantering van die homoseksuele persoon.
Amongst the Arabic entries are the works of Abu Nuwas the ninth century Iraqi poet who is the best known gay poet in Arabic. Some works are on social and religious aspects as is to be expected in countries where Islam is the major religion. In English see Stephen O. Arabic is spoken mainly in Islamic countries in the middle east but there is a notable Arabic speaking diaspora eg several million speakers in the United States and others in Europe.
Web sites in Arabic are very improtant as a means of communication between gays in Islamic countries even though none are listed here. These sites frequently emanate from the Arabic speaking diaspora, especially in the United States. Works without authors. Abu Nuwas, c. Adnani, a.
Awad, R. Place: Egypt; Cairo. Bayyumi, M. Breiman, E. Bayrut: Dar al-afaq al-jadidah. Bukanan, A. Dajani, A. Ghamri, M. Tanta [Egypt]: Dar al-Sahabah lil-Turath. Hamad, M. Hasan, A. Jahiz, d. Lattuf, A. Mahmud, I. Beirut: Riyad al-Rayyis lil-Kutub wa-al-Nashr. London: Riyad al-Rayyis. Mann, T. Mazhar, M. Muntaziri, H. Qum: Dar al-Fikr. Nahhas, M. Nahwa namudhaj li-tafsir al-Junusiyah : Wajhat nazar rajul junusi.
Safadi, K. Saffarini, M. Shaffer, L. Riyad: Dar Salma lil-nashr. Shams al-Din, A. Bayrut: Dar al-Adwa. Place: Kuwait. Whitaker, B. Bayrut: al-Saqi. Zaatari, A. Catalan is spoken in the province of Catalunya in northeast Spain where there is a strong independence movement; the capital of the province is Barcelona. Catalunya reputedly produces as many published book titles as are published in Spanish speaking Spain.
Barcelona: L'Institut. Alphabetical by autho r. Colomer i Carles, O. Carpe diem o el mirall del paganisme. Girona: 14nsello da Cultura Galega. Barcelona: Llibres de l'Index. Ferrarons, A.
Barcelona: Busca Edicions. Mirabet i Mullol, A. Homosexualitat avui : acceptada o encara condemnada? Barcelona: Edhasa : Institut Lambda. Homosexualitat a l'inici del segle XXI. Pons, V. L'homosexualitat a Mallorca a l'edat mitjana 4a. Barcelona: J. Tost, A. Eixir : guia per a joves gais, lesbianes i les seves families. Chinese, with over items is one of the languages with the largest number of entries in this bibliography.
China has an ancient gay history homosexuality is referred to in Han histories and the history of Sima Qian; both not cited here. Periodicals at present emanate from Hong Kong with one from Taiwan. There have been a number of recent studies in Chinese on the history of homosexuality in China, starting with the work by Weixingshiguanzhaizhu Committee of Scholars , published initially in a newspaper and then in a book in Hong Kong under the noses of the homophobic British though a seventeenth century work Tuan hsiu pien also spelt Duanxiu pian , recording 50 famous cases of homosexuality, exists.
This work is not listed in the works below. Zhang Jie has stated that there are many mistakes in the and histories. Liu Dalin is a heterosexual author of over 30 books on sexuality who is known as the Kinsey of China. He has founded 2 sex museums in Shanghai and in Tongli village north of Shanghai near Suzhou which is on the rail line to Beijing. These museums contain many objects relating to homosexuality eg a vase from the eighteenth century showing "peach sharing", a euphemism for homosex.
Li Yinhe see under Li, Y , who has published several works on homosexuality, is a female academic who is now a member of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Maofeng has published a history of homosexual literature which has gone into a second edition. Cuncun Wu, a woman, has published a fine survey of homosexuality in the late Qing period which started as a Ph D at the University of Melbourne, Homoerotic Sensibilities in Late Imperial China , as well as other Chinese books listed here.
Articles on Chinese fiction discussing homosexuality have started to appear many Ming and Ching novels refer to it, eg A Dream of Red Mansions. The last emperor Pu Yi survived the communists and lived to write his autobiography, becoming a gardener in Beijing after the Communist Party took over control of China in Leslie Cheung was a much loved Hong Kong gay actor who committed suicide by jumping off a tall building. Some gay Chinese films have been sent surreptitiously to the Cannes film festival and shown.
The film was shown at the Shanghai gay centre on 6 June when I was present. The word tongzhi comrade has been deliberately taken up in Hong Kong as a word for gays. This work is not without controversy since Sam Shasha claimed than the work had been plagiarized from the first edition of his history. There have also been recent long articles on homosexuality in Chinese historical novels. Ai bao. Lesbian, feminist, and gay publications and ephemera from and about Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and China. Di 1 qi- Dec. Taibei: Taibei you zheng hao xin xiang. Xianggang: Xianggang cai hong. Shi kan hao Aug.
Taipei: P. Box Xianggang: Cai hong xing dong deng. Xianggang: Xianggang shi fen yi hui. Yonghe: Tong guang tong zhi zhang lao jiao hui. Wo men zhi jian. Taibei: P. Xianggang: Xianggang yi shu zhong xin. Can jue ji. Duan xiu bian cong tan. Da lu tong xing lian fan zui. Di 1 ban. Tong xing lian bang lian. Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Hao jiao chu ban she. Taibei Shi: Zhong wai wen xue yue kan she. Ku er : Li lun yu zheng zhi.
Qing lu shang you ni : di yi jie "Ku er qing shu da shang". Taibei: Kai xin yang guang chu ban you xian gong si. Mei li shao nian boys for beauty. Fan qi shi zhi yue. Taibei Shi: Tong xue guan you xian gong si. Chaoyue wanzhi : renshi xing qingxiang. An ye zhong de deng ta : Taiwan tong zhi ji du tu de jian zheng yu shen xue.
Mei ri yi ju : jiu ji ping quan ban. Jidu jiao dui tong xing lian li chang shu. Qing shao nian xing jiao yu jiao cai tao. Xing qu xiang. Xianggang: Gai xie hui. Tong zhi xin, mu yang qing. Cai hong lu shang : Xianggang tong zhi ping quan yun dong fa zhan shi, Kan de jian de zhen xiang : Xianggang tong zhi ping quan bao gao. Xianggang: Xianggang Jidu tu xue hui. Ling tu fu chu : tong zhi shi. Taibei Shi: Taiwan shi xue ji kan za zhi she : zong jing xiao Tang shan chu ban she. Xin zao de ren xie hui bei tong yun zu zhi gong ji shi jian hao wai.
Zai en dian zhong zhan li : "Tong guang tong zhi zhang lao jiao hui she li shi zhou nian ji nian te kan". Cai hong zhan shi. Jia ru wo bu shi yi xing lian. An, K. Hong tai yang xia de hei ling hun : Da lu tong xing lian xian chang bao dao Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Shi bao wen hua chu ban qi ye you xian gong si. Hong tai yang xia di hei ling hun : da lu tong zhi xian chang bao dao Zai ban. Taibei Shi: Re ai chu ban shi ye you xian gong si. Ankerberg, J. Chinese Chu ban. Xianggang: Tian dao shu lou you xian gong si.
Shanghai: Ren min chu ban she.
Ji, B. Xin shi ji fa zhan ren wen she hui ke xue gao deng jiao yu de si kao Tong xing lian zhe de chu jing [Visual Material]: Shenzhen : Shenzhen yin xiang gong si ; Guangzhou Shi : Guangdong yuan feng yin xiang chuan bo you xian gong si [distributor]. Baird, V. Chinese 1 ban. Taibei Shi: Shu lin chu ban you xian gong si. Jia feng xu huang. Xianggang: Yu zhou chu ban she. Ren xing shou ji Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Kai xin yang guang chu ban you xian gong si.
Baldwin, J. Taibei shi: Mai tian chu ban. Bian, J. Beijing Shi: Zhongguo chuan mei da xue chu ban she. Cao, R. Shao nian wu meng [Visual Material]: Taibei shi : Gong gong dian shi wen hua shi ye ji jin hui. Chambers, A. Taibei Shi: Xiao zhi tang wen hua shi ye you xian gong si. Chang, Y. Chen, B. Wei hu jia ting lian meng : Xianggang she hui dui tong xing lian ji xing qing xiang qi shi yi jian diao cha yan jiu bao gao Chu ban.
Xianggang: Wei hu jia tong lian meng. Wo de tong zhi peng you. Xianggang: Ming guang she. Chen, L. Fei chang gu shi : Zhongguo tong xing lian qing gan shi lu Di 1 ban. Beijing Shi: Zhongguo San Xia chu ban she. Chen, M. Sao dong nan ren xin Chu ban. Xian shen shuo fa [Sound Recording]: Xianggang : Ji dao chu ban she. Chen, Y. Ba wang bie ji : tong zhi yue du yu kua wen hua dui hua. Jiayi Xian: Nan hua da xue. Chen, Z. Shen ai "tong zhi ai"? Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Wen hua chuan bo zhong xin you xian gong si. Cheng, L. Cheung, L. Happy together [Visual Material]: [Sydney? Corraze, J.
Taibei Shi: Yuan liu chu ban. Cui, Z. Di xia de jie ri [Visual Material]: [China : s. Ye jing Night scene [Visual Material]: [S. Fan, P. Chun guang zha xie : bai bu tong zhi dian ying quan ji lu Di 1 ban. Ha'erbin Shi: Bei fang wen yi chu ban she. Fang, G. Tong xing lian zai Zhongguo Di 1 ban. Tong xing lian zai Zhongguo. Xianggang: Tian di tu shu you xian gong si.
Fang Gang she hui ji shi xi lie. Forster, E. Taibei: Yuan shen chu ban she. Gangel, K. Xianggang: Tian dao shu lou. Gao, Y. Tong xing lian jian kang gan yu Di 1 ban. Shanghai: Fu Dan da xue chu ban she. Guan, Q. Shi fei, qu zhi : dui ren quan, tong xing lian de lun li fan si Chu ban. Xianggang: Xuan dao chu ban she. Shi fei, qu zhi : dui ren quan, tong xing lian de lun li fan si 2 ban, zeng ding ban. Ping quan? Chong xun zhen xing : xing jie fang hong liu zhong Jidu tu de jian chi yu hui ying Chu ban. Xianggang: Xue sheng fu yin tuan qi chu ban she.
Guan, W. Ling hui jie guan hou Min zhu xin tai shi ; Jie gou tong xing lian [Visual Material]. Guo, X. Han, T. Tong zhi Baobao [Visual Material]: Beijing : Bei ying lu yin lu xiang gong si chu ban fa xing : Bei ying tian di wen hua yi shu fa zhan you xian gong si zong jing xiao. Bao bao [Visual Material]: [China : s. Dang sun wu kong ai shang dan san zang.
Taibei Shi: Xin yi yi shu you xian gong si. He, C. Tong zhi yan jiu Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Ju liu tu shu gong si. Tongzhi yanjiu. Taibei: Juliu. Cong ku er kong jian dao jiao yu kong jian : [di er jie si xing xue shu yan tao hui lun wen ji] Chu ban.
Main article: Intersex rights in Germany. One were monogamous long-term relationships and the other was the privatization of homosexual desires. Prospektive Dokumentation von klinischen und subjektiven Parametern von Heilfasten-Patienten, mit Nachbefragungen nach 1, 4 und 12 Monaten. Angster concentrates on social policy, while E. However, they seem to favor freedom for self-help economic experiments, motivated by many dissatisfactions with present institutions. Bone marrow donation has been allowed since December
Ho, K. Reinterpreting a queer experience : a study of Stanley Kwan's films and their reception. Reinterpreting a queer experience a study of Stanley Kwan's films and their reception. Hong, L. Taibei Shi: Wan xiang tu shu gu fen you xian gong si. Hong, Z. Huang, A. Fan li yu kua yue : lun Chen Xue xiao shuo de ku yi jia ting jing guan pp. Dissertation: Lun wen zhe xue shuo shi --Xianggang Zhong wen da xue, Huang, Z. Meiguo de min zu, zhong zu he tong xing lian : Meiguo she hui de li shi tou shi.
Hui, Y. Fang kuan tong xing lian fa li yi hai bu qian. Ji, D. Ku er kuang huan jie : Taiwan dang dai queer wen xue du ben Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Yuan zun wen hua qi ye gu fen you xian gong si. Ku er qi shi lu : Taiwan dang dai queer lun shu du ben Chu ban. Wan an Babilun : wang lu shi dai de xing yu, yi yi yu zheng zhi yue du Chu ban. Taibei Xian Xindian Shi: Tan suo wen hua shi ye you xian gong si. Jian, J.
Wo de tong xing lian jing yan Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Tangshan chu ban she. Klassen, S. Koake, T. Zhongguo tong xing ai shi lu Chu ban. Xianggang: Fen hong san jiao chu ban she. Xianggang: You he zhi zuo shi wu suo. Zhongguo tong xing ai shi lu Zeng ding ban. Konrad, J. Taibei Shi: Cai tuan fa ren ji du jiao yu zhou guang quan ren guan huai ji gou. Kwan, K. Lun gang jiao de he fa nian ling : yu Xia Zhengmin fa guan shang que. Li wan kuang chao : xi juan quan qiu de xing jie fang yun dong Chu ban. Kwan, S. Lan Yu [Visual Material]: [S. Lai, Y. Ren shi tong zhi shou ce.
Taibei Shi: Taibei Shi zheng fu min zheng ju. Lai, Z. Qu gong si shang ban : Xin gong yuan nan tong zhi de qing yu kong jian Chu ban. Lee, A. Xi yan [Visual Material]: Xianggang : Hai an lu ying you xian gong si. Li, B. Xianggang: Tian di tu shu. Li, C. Kua yue wei qiang, jie na cha yi : xing qing xiang qi shi li fa dui Jidu tu de tiao zhan. Li, L. Li, M.
Homosexualität und Diskriminierung: Die Abschaffung des § (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Frank Sauer. Download it once and read it on your Kindle. Homosexualität und Diskriminierung: Die Abschaffung des § (German Edition) [Frank Sauer] on vodupafego.cf *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Xianggang tong zhi qing yu wu yu. Xianggang: Ming chuang chu ban she. Li, S. Shi ye fei ye? Li, W. Li, Y. Nan tong xing lian dian ying Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Zhi wen chu ban she. Tong xing lian ya wen hua Di 1 ban. Beijing: Jin ri Zhongguo chu ban she : Xin hua shu dian jing xiao. Tong xing lian ya wen hua. Beijing: Zhongguo you yi chu ban gong si. Ni ru ci xu yao an wei : guan yu ai de dui hua Di 1 ban. Beijing Shi: Dang dai shi jie chu ban she. Ta men de shi jie.
Ta men de shi jie : Zhongguo nan tong xing lian qun luo tou shi Di 1 ban. Taiyuan: Shanxi ren min chu ban she. Ta men de shi jie : Zhongguo nan tong xing lian qun luo tou shi. Xianggang : Tian di tu shu you xian gong si: Jiulong. Li, Z. Wo de ai ren shi nan ren : nan tong zhi de cheng zhang gu shi Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Zhang lao shi wen hua shi ye gu fen you xian gongsi. Wo de ai ren shi nan ren : nan tong zhi di cheng zhang gu shi Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Zhang lao shi wen hua shi ye gu fen you xian gong si. Liang, Q. Tong xing, lian ren [Visual Material]. Lin, X. Kan jian tong xing lian Chu ban.
Liu, B. Liu, D. Zhongguo tong xing lian yanjiu. Beijing: Zhongghuo shehui chubanshe. Taibei Shi: Bai shi ke ji yi shu gu fen you xian gong si. Zhongguo tong xing lian yan jiu Di 1 ban. Beijing Shi: Zhongguo she hui chu ban she. Zhongguo tong xing lian yan jiu. Liu, L. Yan yi xing yu xing bie : ku er xiao shuo yu yan jiu zhuan ji. Liu, S. Lu, J. Hua ren tong zhi xin du ben : Hua ren tong zhi jiao liu da hui wen ji. Xianggang: Hua sheng shu dian. Lutzer, E. Houston, Texas: Meiguo fu yin zheng zhu xie hui.
Mai Lizhen. Guan Chaojie. Xie, Z. Ying fou li fa jin zhi xing qing xiang qi shi? Taibei Shi: Yang zhi wen hua shi ye gu fen you xian gong si. Taibei Shi: Han zhong wen hua shi ye gu fen you xian gong si. Taibei Shi: Sheng yi you xian gong si wen hua shi ye bu. Zhe yang wo men jiu neng yong yuan zai yi qi. Taibei Xian, Banqiao Shi: Ji he chu ban she. Mian, M.
Wo men hai pa [Visual Material]: [China] : Guizhou dong fang yin xiang chu ban she. Ouyang, W. Tong gen sheng Chu ban. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: You ren chu ban she.
Pan, G. Jie xi tong xing lian : fan chang xian xiang bao gao Chu ban. Xianggang: Ci wen hua you xian gong si. Tou shi tong xing lian : yi chang xing wei yan jiu Chu ban. Payne, L. Xianggang: Tupo. Chinese 2 ban. Xianggang: Tu po chu ban she. Peng, H. Tong xing lian, zi sha, jing shen bing Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Gan lan ji jin hui. Tong xing lian, zi sha, jing shen bing. Tong xing lian zhe de ai yu xing Chu ban. Taibei: Dong cha chu ban she. Peng, Q. Xianggang: Shi jie chu ban she. Ruan, Q. Taibei Shi: Yuan zun wen hua.
Rubin, G. Beijing: Shi shi chu ban she. Ku er li lun Di 1 ban. Beijing Shi: Wen hua yi shu chu ban she. Ku er li lun. Li yin he wen ji. Schmidt, T. Taibei Shi: Xiao yuan shu fang chu ban she. Schmierer, D. Xianggang: Dao sheng chu ban she. Sears, A. Shen, J. Jiu ling nian dai Taiwan tong zhi xiao shuo zhong de tong zhi zhu ti yan jiu. Shen, Y. Tong zhi chi he yu le zhi nan : Taiwan di yi ben tong zhi sheng huo xing dong yu xin li zi xun shu.
Taibei: Hao jiao chu ban she. Tong zhi xin hao nan ren zhi nan : kai fang she hui xia de xian dai tong zhi, yi an, yi zhi, yu fei yu Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Hao jiao chu ban she : xing xiao zong dai li Yong xu tu shu you xian gong si. Shi, R. Zhongguo gu dai tong xing lian mi wen. Shi, Y. Zhongguo gu dai wen xue zhong de tong xing lian shu xie yan jiu Di 1 ban. Shanghai: Shanghai ren min chu ban she. Silverstein, C.
Taibei Shi: Xing lin wen hua. Song, Y. Tong xing ai yu tong xing lian [Visual Material]: Taibei Shi : Gong gong dian shi wen hua shi ye ji jin hui fa xing. Spargo, T. Taibei Shi: Mao tou ying chu ban. Chinese Di 1 ban. Beijing Shi: Beijing da xue chu ban she. Strommen, M. Taibei Shi: Dao sheng chu ban she. Sun, Y. Yu, K. Tang, Y.
Sheng ming de zun gui : ping xin jing qi lun tong xing lian Chu ban. Xianggang: Zhen li ji jin hui you xian gong si. Tong, G. Hao nan Luo Ge. Bian er chai. Taibei Shi: Tian yi chu ban she. Qiexiaoguangfurongpizhe, B. Yi chun xiang zhi. Wang, F. Tianjin Shi: Tianjin she hui ke xue yuan chu ban she. Wang, J.
Wang, M. Tong yi zhi jian : tong xing lian zheng yi de fu he zhi lu pp. Dissertation: Lun wen Shen dao xue shuo shi --Xianggang Zhong wen da xue, Wang, S. Yi zhi nan ren Chu ban. Taibei shi: Er ya chu ban you xian gong si. Wang, X. Dong gong, xi gong Di 1 ban. Xi'an Shi: Shanxi shi fan da xue chu ban she. Wang, Y. Taiwan nan tong zhi ping quan yun dong shi Chu ban. Taipei Shi: Kai xin yang guang chu ban you xian gong si.
Weeks, J. Nanjing: Jiangsu ren min chu ban she. Zhongguo tong xing lian mi shi Chu ban. Zhongguo tong xing lian mi shi. Zhongguo tong xing lian mi shi : Xianggang Yu zhou chu ban she. Wong, K. Chun guang zha xie Happy together [Visual Material]: [Chengdu? Chun guang zha xie Happy together [Visual Material]: Xianggang : Mei ya lei she ying die you xian gong si [distributor.
Wu, C. Ming Qing she hui xing ai feng qi Beijing di 1 ban. Beijing: Ren min wen xue chu ban she. Tong zhi yu chuan mei Chu ban. Xianggang: Zhi xing ji jin hui. Wo men huo zhe Chu ban ed. Xianggang: Xianggang dong zhi yan jiu she. Xiao, H. Wan Ming de nan se xiao shuo : "Yi chun xiang zhi" yu "Bian er chai". Taibei: Guo li zheng zhi da xue. Xiaoming, X. Tong xing ai wen ti er shi wu jiang Chu ban. Xie, H. Yin xing, ku yu Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Xing zheng yuan wen hua jian she wei yuan hui. Xu, Y. Dang wang zi yu jian wang zi : ren shi dang dai tong xing lian wen hua Chu ban.
Taibei Shi: Ping shi chu ban you xian gong si. Tong zhi gong he guo Chu ban. You xiu nan tong zhi Chu ban.
Yang, F. You yuan jing meng Peony pavilion [Visual Material]: Xianggang : Hua sheng ying she you xian gong si. Yang, H. Ai yu xin yang : Taiwan tong zhi fo jiao tu zhi ping quan yun dong yu shen ceng sheng tai xue Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Shang zhou chu ban. Yang, J. Tong xin lian. Yang, R. Yang, T.
Mailuolun shi jian diao cha wei yuan hui bao gao shu : nian. Mailuolun shi jian diao cha wei yuan hui bao gao shu zhai yao : nian. Lun ti er. Yang, Y. Feuille Leaf [Visual Material]: [S. Tong xing ai wen ti tao lun ji. Shanghai: Bei xin shu ju. Yang, Z. Ai guo gong si Chu ban. Xiao xiang qu. Taibei Xian, Yonghe Shi: Ji he chu ban she. Yin, B. Zhongshan bei lu di jing bian qian li cheng zhong zhi qing yu zhu ti yu guo zu ren tong jian gou.
Yu, D. Zhongguo ren de tong xing lian Chu ban. Taibei Shi: Zhang lao shi chu ban she. Yu, T. Xianggang: Dong xi wen hua shi ye gong si. Zhang, A. Zhang, B. Tong xing ai Di 1 ban. Jinan Shi: Shandong ke xue ji shu chu ban she. Tong xing ai Di 1 ban ed. Zhang, G. Cai hong de ling yi duan [Visual Material]: Xianggang : Xianggang dian tai dian shi bu. Zhang, H. Tongxinglian zhe quanli pingdeng baozhang zhi xianfa jichu. Taibei: Xuelin wenhua shiye youxian gongsi. Nanjing Shi: Nanjing chu ban she. Zhang, J. Jie mei "xi" qiang Chu ban. In the Nazis strengthened Paragraph by redefining the crime as a felony and thus increasing the maximum penalty from six months' to five years' imprisonment.
Further, they removed the longtime tradition that the law applied only to penetrative intercourse. A criminal offense would now exist if "objectively the general sense of shame was offended" and subjectively "the debauched intention was present to excite sexual desire in one of the two men, or a third". This aggravation of the severity of Paragraph in increased the number of convictions tenfold, to 8, annually. So, for example, in the Gestapo received the following anonymous letter:.
F as a subtenant, who has remarkable daily visits from young men. This must not continue. In contradistinction to normal police, the Gestapo were authorized to take gay men into preventive detention Schutzhaft of arbitrary duration without an accusation or even after an acquittal. This was often the fate of so-called "repeat offenders": at the end of their sentences, they were not freed but sent for additional "re-education" Umerziehung in a concentration camp.
In the Soviet occupation zone that later became East Germany see History of Germany since , the development of law was not uniform. The Provincial High Court in Halle Oberlandesgericht Halle, or OLG Halle decided for Saxony-Anhalt in that Paragraphs and a were to be seen as injustice perpetrated by the Nazis, because a progressive juridical development had been broken off and even been reversed. Homosexual acts were to be tried only according to the laws of the Weimar Republic. In , one year after being reconstituted as the German Democratic Republic , the Berlin Appeal Court Kammergericht Berlin decided for all of East Germany to reinstate the validity of the old, pre form of Paragraph In , the same court decided that Paragraph a, in contrast to Paragraph , did not presuppose acts tantamount to sexual intercourse.
Lewdness Unzucht was defined as any act that is performed to arouse sexual excitement and "violates the moral sentiment of our workers". A revision of the criminal code in made it possible to put aside prosecution of an illegal action that represented no danger to socialist society because of lack of consequence. This removed Paragraph from the effective body of the law, because at the same time the East Berlin Court of Appeal Kammergericht decided that all punishments deriving from the old form of Paragraph should be suspended due to the insignificance of the acts to which it had been applied.
On this basis, homosexual acts between consenting adults ceased to be punished, beginning in the late s. On July 1, , the GDR adopted its own code of criminal law. This law applied not only to men who have sex with boys but equally to women who have sex with girls. On August 11, the Supreme Court of the GDR struck down a conviction under Paragraph on the basis that "homosexuality, just like heterosexuality, represents a variant of sexual behavior.
Homosexual people do therefore not stand outside socialist society, and the civil rights are warranted to them exactly as to all other citizens. The act passed into law May 30, This removed all specific reference to homosexuality from East German criminal law. After World War II , the victorious Allies demanded the abolition of all laws with specifically National Socialist content; however, they left it to West Germany to decide whether or not the expansion of laws regulating male homosexual relationships falling under Paragraph should be left in place.
On May 10, the Federal Constitutional Court upheld the decision to retain the version, claiming that the paragraph was "not influenced by National Socialist [i. Between and , about , men were indicted and about 50, men sentenced to prison. The rate of convictions for violation of Paragraph rose by 44 percent, and in the s, the number remained as much as four times higher than it had been in the last years of the Weimar Republic.
A nineteen-year-old jumped off the Goetheturm after having received a summons , another fled to South America, another to Switzerland, a dental technician and his friend poisoned themselves with coal gas. In total there were six known suicides. Many of the accused lost their jobs. Similar to the thinking during the Nazi Regime, the government argued that there was a difference between a homosexual man and a homosexual woman, and because all men were more aggressive and predatory than women, lesbianism would not be criminalized. While lesbianism violated nature, it did not present the same threat to society as did male homosexuality.
First convening in , the legal experts in the criminal code commission Strafrechtskommission continued to debate the future of Paragraph ; while the constitutional court ruled it was not unconstitutional, this did not mean it should forever remain in force. It was therefore the commission's job to advise the Ministry of Justice and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer about the new form this law should take.
While they all agreed homosexual activity was immoral, they were divided when it came to whether or not it should be allowed to be practiced between consenting adults in private. Due to their belief that homosexuals were not born that way, but rather, they fell victim to seduction, the Justice Ministry officials remained concerned that if freed from criminal penalty, adult homosexuals would intensify their "propaganda and activity in public" and put male youth at risk.
Concerning male homosexuality, the legal system must, more than in other areas, erect a bulwark against the spreading of this vice, which otherwise would represent a serious danger for a healthy and natural life of the people. With new national Bundestag West Germany's parliament elections coming up, the Social Democratic Party was coming into power, first in as part of a broad coalition, and by , with a parliamentary majority.
With the Social Democrats holding the power, they were finally in a position to make key appointments in the Ministry of Justice and start implementing reform. In addition, demographic anxieties such as fear of declining birth rate no longer controlled the s and homosexual men were no longer seen as a threat for not being able to reproduce. The role of the state was seen as protecting society from harm, and should only intervene in cases that involved force or the abuse of minors. With the reform in place, the acceptance of homosexual acts or homosexual identities for West Germans was far from in place.
Most reformers agreed that decriminalizing sexual relations between adult men was not the same as advocating an acceptance of homosexual men. While the old view of "militarized" masculinity may have phased out, "family-centered" masculinity was now grounded in the traditional male, and being a proper man meant being a proper father, which was believed at the time to be a role a homosexual male could not fulfill. On November 23, , the social-liberal coalition of the SPD and the Free Democratic Party passed a complete reform of the laws concerning sex and sexuality.
The paragraph was renamed from "Crimes and misdemeanors against morality" into "Offenses against sexual self-determination", and the word Unzucht "lewdness" was replaced by the equivalent of the term "sexual acts". Paragraph only retained sex with minors as a qualifying attribute; the age of consent was lowered to 18 compared to 14 for heterosexual sex. In the Green Party and the first openly gay member of the German parliament tried to remove Paragraph together with Paragraph This would have meant a general age of consent of 14 years.
In the course of reconciling the legal codes of the two German states after , the Bundestag had to decide whether Paragraph should be abolished entirely as in the former East Germany or whether the remaining West German form of the law should be extended to what had now become the eastern portion of the Federal Republic.
The right-conservative CSU-politician Norbert Geis called this general amnesty a "dishonor" referring, however, only to the defectors of the Wehrmacht, not to homosexuals. The issue of pardoning men convicted in the postwar era remained controversial. On May 12, , Federal Minister of Justice , Heiko Maas , announced that Germany was investigating the possibility of pardoning and compensating all gay men convicted under Paragraph From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the film Paragraph , see Paragraph film. Mancini Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom. Lybeck Whisnant A History of Modern Germany Since University of California Press. Gaylaw: Challenging the Apartheid of the Closet.
Harvard University Press. Ragan Homosexuality in Modern France. Ludwig II King of Bavaria. Ablehnung — Duldung — Anerkennung. Sex and the Weimar Republic.