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Abstract: This article adopts a nietzschean-foucaultian methodology, draw from a genealogical analysis of the speeches about sexuality in the times of the consolidation of Argentinean patriotic values, in order to identify the production of the figure of the woman. What has changed is the manner in which the enemy figures of the song are interpreted. Whereas, the last revisions to most Spanish American anthems were made during the nineteenth century, changing political conditions continue to result in proposals to update national anthems all over the world.
I conclude this essay, moving beyond the national territories of Spanish America, with a brief reflection on recent international controversies that resulted from attempts to change or adapt the national anthems of Spain and the United States.
In Spain, the national anthem has no lyrics, and a polemical disagreement ensued when the Spanish Olympic Committee proposed adding lyrics to the anthem. A conflict in the United States arose with the creation of a Spanish-language version of the lyrics. These recent cases are illustrative because they demonstrate the manner in which national anthems continue to underscore political wedge issues even today.
The image of history represented is, of course, highly ideological. The national anthems of Colombia, Honduras, and Panama trace their respective national identity back to the heroism of Columbus. According to the Honduran anthem, Columbus not only found this sleeping virgin, he consecrated her with his love:. America, in the Honduran anthem, embodies the raw natural beauty that Columbus discovered and converted. In celebrating their American difference, some anthems glorify their pre-Colombian indigenous ancestors.
This is an ironic and subtle negotiation of identity. Whereas indigenous populations were and are marginalized from the national imaginary and resources by Latin American governments, the ancient indigenous cultures are exoticized.
The ancient Inca, in this anthem, represent the roots on which a uniquely American culture would be grafted. The political exigencies of Independence movements required assertions of new separate identities. Early Spanish American national anthems, written around the time of independence, celebrate freedom, independence, and American difference. Many Spanish American countries defined their national identity in opposition to Spain. In celebrating the ancient glory of the Inca, the original Argentine anthem recognizes a specifically American, as opposed to a Spanish origin.
The details and histories narrated by national anthems vary from one country or version to another, but the purpose of the national anthem as a genre remains consistent.
Of course as Benedict Anderson has shown, national identity is in many ways a fictional, imagined, discourse. The populace of any given country consists of a diverse section of differing racial, ethnic, social, political, economic, and cultural identities. Overlooking the differences, people feel that they are part of the nation. How does this happen?
The dynamic of singing an anthem in a group constitutes an experience of community. At precisely such moments, people who are wholly unknown to each other utter the same verses to the same melody. The image: unisonance. Anderson points out that the knowledge of this community transcends the acoustic experience. If, as Anderson implies, the experience of unisonance can be imagined, there must be other factors, in addition to the effect of music on groups, that allow for national anthems to constitute communities.
The process of modern education contributes to the construction of a national community through socialization and institutionalization.
The act of singing entonando national anthems in school ceremonies, for example, aims to infuse a sense of national pride and identity. Today, the himno nacional is sung daily in all public schools at a. The lyrics evoke an ideal message of national values, patriotism, work and peace, though this has not always been the case. The history of the Costa Rican Himno nacional demonstrates the historical development of the very notion of a national anthem.
The first stanza reads like many Spanish American national anthems that celebrate independence from Spain:. This first stanza shows the common figure of Costa Rica breaking the chains that tethered it to the foreign colonial power, Spain, and declaring itself free and sovereign—a country with its own flag invested in the goal of progress. The fifth stanza again celebrates the historical battle when the Costa Rican armed forces rejected a subsequent invasion by Walker:.
The surgery was scheduled when a donor was recently submitted, sources said. A later ruling requested instead to execute them, but after defeating Liniers, Ortiz de Ocampo decided to ignore the latter and instead to follow the first ruling. Transculturality — the Puzzling Form of Cultures Today. Aaron Rodgers still wants to make the 'no-no-no, good-play' throws 24d Rob Demovsky. What we found is an already cross-culture analysed above which developed a common monoculture, neither specifically Basque, nor specifically Spanish. The concept of the re-invention of a literary work by the reader has already been widely discussed Borjes, ; Barthes, ; Eco, as unquestionable theory of Literature. Key cultural concepts are explored regarding cultural identities such as monoculturality, interculturality, transculturality and crosscultural realities; and their transformative processes based on transculturality and hybridization and also within transculturation subversion and assimilation.
As we can see from these extracts, the first complete version of the Costa Rican national anthem pays homage—musically and poetically—to Costa Rica as a strong, independent military force. Contemporary Costa Rica—a country with no military that bases its national identity on a discourse of peace—defines itself very differently from the military image projected by its first two national anthems from and This version again emphasizes the importance of defending la patria , though this time without including the historical mentions of Independence and the invasions of William Walker.
One of his responsibilities was to visit elementary and high schools in important Costa Rican cities on a monthly basis to ensure that the students sang their national anthem in tune. Although when cited in isolation these references to forests, valleys, sweet fragrances, and flowery plains appear to represent a tranquil image of Costa Rica, the song as a whole remains overwhelmingly bellicose. The third stanza evokes the national anthem itself as a thunderous war-chant:. A slight musical issue inspired some revisions with respect to the music.
At the same time, they expanded the scope of the himno. The anthem that took shape as a musical flag took on an additional role, that of didactic and pedagogical text—a crucial tool in the musical and civic education of the nation. The concept of a national anthem as part of the national program of education in Costa Rica has endured from the nineteenth century to the present day. Only three verses in the third stanza constitute a threat to potential invaders:. In this version, the Costa Rican hero is so deeply pacifist that if invaded he will need to improvise an armament from his farm tools.
The central themes of the Costa Rican himno nacional clearly evoke the ideal values of work and peace. This most recent version of the Costa Rican anthem might be conceived of as a palimpsestic time capsule—a hybrid song that simultaneously combines the music of a military march with lyrics, accrued over history, that represent the country as a bastion of work and peace. The development of the Chilean anthem also meanders through a number of significant political and compositional turning points.
Over the course of history we can see cyclical changes in Chilean identity that are expressed and modified through the national anthem. These historical negotiations underscore the irony involved in attempting to express and fix national identity through music. Historically, nevertheless, there exist other cases in which national anthems have been written by composers or lyricists from other countries.
Perhaps because of a lack of trained composers in the Americas, it was very common for foreigners to compose the music of Spanish American national anthems. What, then, is the relationship between the music and the lyrics? If the point of a Chilean national anthem is to represent Chile, what kind of interrelationship between the lyrics and the music would this imply? Theoretically, one might expect that the lyrics and music of a national anthem would function in parallel, constituting a cohesive unit of poetic and musical representation.
History reveals, nevertheless, that the musical composition and the text of the lyrics can be quite divergent in terms of time, space, style and sentiment. The Costa Rican anthem, combining a military march from and a song celebrating peace from , is a case in point. Since the music for the Chilean himno had yet to be composed, the first public performance of the newly-written Chilean national anthem September was sung to the music from the national anthem of Argentina.
With regards to the representation of nationhood this performance is both aesthetically and politically extraordinary. The original Chilean national anthem—the first formal effort to represent Chile via the combined symbolism of poetry and music—joined lyrics written by an Argentine with music that had been previously composed to represent a different country Argentina and a different set of lyrics.
At the first public performance, a disgusted Vera y Pintado stood up and rejected the song for its association with the Spanish enemy. Subsequently, the Chilean, Manuel Robles, composed new music, though this version only lasted from — The nationality of the composers notwithstanding, these different musical scores grew from different parts of the nation. Musical compositions, like literary texts, do not arise from silence. They develop out of, or in reaction to, previous compositions. In the HBO interview, Rodgers joked he'll never be able to thank the donor for helping his football career.
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